Basics MeasurementSet

Data is handled in CASA via the table system. In particular, visibility data are stored in a CASA table known as a MeasurementSet (MS). Details of the physical and logical MS structure are given below, but for our purposes here an MS is just a construct that contains the data. An MS can also store single dish data (as an auto-correlation-only data set), see "Single-dish data calibration and reduction".

A full description of the MeasurementSet can be found here, and a description of the MS model column can be found in the Synthesis Calibration section.

Inside the Toolkit: MeasurementSets are handled in the ms tool. Import and export methods include ms.fromfits and ms.tofits.

NOTE: Images are handled through special image tables, although standard FITS I/O is also supported. Images and image data are described in "Dealing with Images".

The headers of any FITS files can be displayed in the logger with the listfits task:

# listfits :: List the HDU and typical data rows of a fits file:
fitsfile = '' # Name of input fits file

More Information on how to access Visibility Data is provided in the "Data Examination and Editing" chapter.

Unless your data was previously processed by CASA, you will need to import it into CASA as an MS. Supported formats include some “standard” flavors of UVFITS, the VLA “Export” archive format, and most recently, the ALMA Science Data Model (ASDM) format. These are described in "UV Data Import".

Once in MeasurementSet form, your data can be accessed through various tools and tasks with a common interface. The most important of these is the data selection interface, which allows you to specify the subset of the data on which the tasks and tools will operate.


Under the Hood: Structure of the MeasurementSet

Inside the Toolkit: Generic CASA tables are handled in the tb tool. You have direct access to keywords, rows and columns of the tables with the methods of this tool.

It is not necessary that a casual CASA user know the specific details on how the data in the MS is stored and the contents of all the sub-tables. However, CASA docs occasionally refers to specific “columns” of the MS when describing the actions of various tasks, and thus we provide the following synopsis to familiarize the user with the necessary nomenclature.

All CASA data files, including MeasurementSets, are written into the current working directory by default, with each CASA table represented as a separate sub-directory. MS names therefore need only comply with UNIX file or directory naming conventions, and can be referred to from within CASA directly, or via full path names.

An MS consists of a MAIN table containing the visibility data and associated sub-tables containing auxiliary or secondary information. The tables are logical constructs, with contents located in the physical table.* files on disk. The MAIN table consists of the table.* files in the main directory of the MS-file itself, and the other tables are in the respective subdirectories. The various MS tables and sub-tables can be seen by listing the contents of the MS directory itself (e.g. using Unix ls), or via the browsetable task.

See figure 1 for an example of the contents of a MS directory. Or, from the casa prompt,

CASA <1>: ls #IPython system call: ls -F
ANTENNA           POLARIZATION     table.f1        table.f3_TSM1  table.f8
DATA_DESCRIPTION  PROCESSOR        table.f10       table.f4       table.f8_TSM1
FEED              SORTED_TABLE     table.f10_TSM1  table.f5       table.f9
FIELD             SOURCE           table.f11       table.f5_TSM1  table.f9_TSM1
FLAG_CMD          SPECTRAL_WINDOW  table.f11_TSM1  table.f6
HISTORY           STATE            table.f2        table.f6_TSM0  table.lock
OBSERVATION       table.dat        table.f2_TSM1   table.f7
POINTING          table.f0         table.f3        table.f7_TSM1

NOTE: The MAIN table information is contained in the table.* files in this directory.

Each of the sub-table sub-directories contain their own table.dat and other files, e.g.

CASA <2>: ls #IPython system call: ls -F
table.dat  table.f0  table.f0i  table.lock

Type Figure
ID imex-ms-content
Caption Figure 1: The contents of a MeasurementSet. These tables compose a MeasurementSet named on disk. This display is obtained by using the File:Open menu in browsetable and left double-clicking on the directory.

Each “row” in a table contains entries for a number of specified “columns”. For example, in the MAIN table of the MS, the original visibility data is contained in the DATA column — each “cell” contains a matrix of observed complex visibilities for that row at a single time stamp, for a single baseline in a single spectral window. The shape of the data matrix is given by the number of channels and the number of correlations (voltage-products) formed by the correlator for an array.

Table 1 lists the non-data columns of the MAIN table that are most important during a typical data reduction session. Table 2 at the bottom lists the key data columns of the MAIN table of an interferometer MS. The MS produced by fillers for specific instruments may insert special columns, such as ALMA_PHASE_CORR, ALMA_NO_PHAS_CORR and ALMA_PHAS_CORR_FLAG_ROW for ALMA data filled using the importasdm filler. These columns are visible in browsetable and are accessible from the toolkit in the ms tool (e.g. the ms.getdata method) and from the tb “table” tool (e.g. using tb.getcol).

NOTE: When you examine table entries for IDs such as FIELD_ID or DATA_DESC_ID, you will see 0-based numbers.


Parameter Contents
ANTENNA1 First antenna in baseline
ANTENNA2 Second antenna in baseline
FIELD_ID Field (source no.) identification
DATA_DESC_ID Spectral window number, polarization identifier pair (IF no.)
ARRAY_ID Subarray number
OBSERVATION_ID Observation identification
POLARIZATION_ID Polarization identification
SCAN_NUMBER Scan number
TIME Integration midpoint time
UVW UVW coordinates
Type Table
ID imex-tab-mscolumns
Caption Table 1: Common columns in the MAIN table of the MS.

The MS can contain a number of “scratch” columns, which are used to hold useful versions of other columns such as the data or weights for further processing. The most common scratch columns are:

  • CORRECTED_DATA — used to hold calibrated data for imaging or display;
  • MODEL_DATA — holds the Fourier inversion of a particular model image for calibration or imaging. This column is optional.

The creation and use of the scratch columns is generally done behind the scenes, but you should be aware that they are there (and when they are used).


Column Format Contents
DATA Complex(Nc, Nf) complex visibility data matrix (= ALMA_PHASE_CORR by default)
FLAG Bool(Nc, Nf) cumulative data flags
WEIGHT Float(Nc) weight for a row
SIGMA Float(Nc) sigma for a row
WEIGHT_SPECTRUM Float(Nc, Nf) individual weights for a data matrix
SIGMA_SPECTRUM Float(Nc, Nf) individual sigmas for a data matrix
ALMA_PHASE_CORR Complex(Nc, Nf) on-line phase corrected data (Not in VLA data)
ALMA_NO_PHAS_CORR Bool(Nc, Nf) data that has not been phase corrected (Not in VLA data)
ALMA_PHAS_CORR_FLAG_ROW Bool(Nc, Nf) flag to use phase-corrected data or not (not in VLA data)
MODEL_DATA Complex(Nc, Nf) Scratch: created by calibrater or imager tools
CORRECTED_DATA Complex(Nc, Nf) Scratch: created by calibrater or imager tools
Type Table
ID imex-tab-msmaintable
Caption Table 2: Commonly accessed MAIN Table data-related columns. NOTE: The columns ALMA_PHASE_CORR, ALMA_NO_PHAS_CORR and ALMA_PHAS_CORR_FLAG_ROW are specific to ALMA data filled using the importasdm filler.

Data flags can be set in the MS, too. Whenever a flag is set, the data will be ignored in all processing steps but not physically deleted from the MS. The flags are channel-based and stored in the MS FLAG subtable. Backups can be stored in the MS.flagversions file that can be accessed via the flagmanager.

The most recent specification for the MS is MeasurementSet definition version 2.0.