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0.1.129 tclean

Requires:

Synopsis
Radio Interferometric Image Reconstruction

Description

Form images from visibilities and reconstruct a sky model. This task handles continuum images and spectral line cubes, supports outlier fields, contains standard clean based algorithms along with algorithms for multi-scale and wideband image reconstruction, widefield imaging correcting for the w-term, full primary-beam imaging and joint mosaic imaging (with heterogeneous array support for ALMA).



Arguments





Inputs

vis

Name(s) of input visibility file(s) default: none; example: vis=’ngc5921.ms’ vis=[’ngc5921a.ms’,’ngc5921b.ms’]; multiple MSes

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

selectdata

Enable data selection parameters.

allowed:

bool

Default:

True

field

Select fields to image or mosaic. Use field id(s) or name(s). [’go listobs’ to obtain the list id’s or names] default: ”= all fields If field string is a non-negative integer, it is assumed to be a field index otherwise, it is assumed to be a field name field=’0~2’; field ids 0,1,2 field=’0,4,5~7’; field ids 0,4,5,6,7 field=’3C286,3C295’; field named 3C286 and 3C295 field = ’3,4C*’; field id 3, all names starting with 4C For multiple MS input, a list of field strings can be used: field = [’0~2’,’0~4’]; field ids 0-2 for the first MS and 0-4 for the second field = ’0~2’; field ids 0-2 for all input MSes

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

spw

Select spectral window/channels NOTE: channels de-selected here will contain all zeros if selected by the parameter mode subparameters. default: ”=all spectral windows and channels spw=’0~2,4’; spectral windows 0,1,2,4 (all channels) spw=’0:5~61’; spw 0, channels 5 to 61 spw=’<2’; spectral windows less than 2 (i.e. 0,1) spw=’0,10,3:3~45’; spw 0,10 all channels, spw 3, channels 3 to 45. spw=’0~2:2~6’; spw 0,1,2 with channels 2 through 6 in each. For multiple MS input, a list of spw strings can be used: spw=[’0’,’0~3’]; spw ids 0 for the first MS and 0-3 for the second spw=’0~3’ spw ids 0-3 for all input MS spw=’3:10~20;50~60’ for multiple channel ranges within spw id 3 spw=’3:10~20;50~60,4:0~30’ for different channel ranges for spw ids 3 and 4 spw=’0:0~10,1:20~30,2:1;2;3’; spw 0, channels 0-10, spw 1, channels 20-30, and spw 2, channels, 1,2 and 3 spw=’1~4;6:15~48’ for channels 15 through 48 for spw ids 1,2,3,4 and 6

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

timerange

Range of time to select from data

default: ” (all); examples, timerange = ’YYYY/MM/DD/hh:mm:ss~YYYY/MM/DD/hh:mm:ss’ Note: if YYYY/MM/DD is missing date defaults to first day in data set timerange=’09:14:0~09:54:0’ picks 40 min on first day timerange=’25:00:00~27:30:00’ picks 1 hr to 3 hr 30min on NEXT day timerange=’09:44:00’ pick data within one integration of time timerange=’> 10:24:00’ data after this time For multiple MS input, a list of timerange strings can be used: timerange=[’09:14:0~09:54:0’,’> 10:24:00’] timerange=’09:14:0~09:54:0”; apply the same timerange for all input MSes

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

uvrange

Select data within uvrange (default unit is meters) default: ” (all); example: uvrange=’0~1000klambda’; uvrange from 0-1000 kilo-lambda uvrange=’> 4klambda’;uvranges greater than 4 kilo lambda For multiple MS input, a list of uvrange strings can be used: uvrange=[’0~1000klambda’,’100~1000klamda’] uvrange=’0~1000klambda’; apply 0-1000 kilo-lambda for all input MSes

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

antenna

Select data based on antenna/baseline

default: ” (all) If antenna string is a non-negative integer, it is assumed to be an antenna index, otherwise, it is considered an antenna name. antenna=’5&6’; baseline between antenna index 5 and index 6. antenna=’VA05&VA06’; baseline between VLA antenna 5 and 6. antenna=’5&6;7&8’; baselines 5-6 and 7-8 antenna=’5’; all baselines with antenna index 5 antenna=’05’; all baselines with antenna number 05 (VLA old name) antenna=’5,6,9’; all baselines with antennas 5,6,9 index number For multiple MS input, a list of antenna strings can be used: antenna=[’5’,’5&6’]; antenna=’5’; antenna index 5 for all input MSes antenna=’!DV14’; use all antennas except DV14

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

scan

Scan number range

default: ” (all) example: scan=’1~5’ For multiple MS input, a list of scan strings can be used: scan=[’0~100’,’10~200’] scan=’0~100; scan ids 0-100 for all input MSes

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

observation

Observation ID range default: ” (all) example: observation=’1~5’

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

intent

Scan Intent(s)

default: ” (all) example: intent=’TARGET_SOURCE’ example: intent=’TARGET_SOURCE1,TARGET_SOURCE2’ example: intent=’TARGET_POINTING*’

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

datacolumn

Data column to image (data or observed, corrected) default:’corrected’ ( If ’corrected’ does not exist, it will use ’data’ instead )

allowed:

string

Default:

corrected

imagename

Pre-name of output images

example : imagename=’try’

Output images will be (a subset of) :

try.psf - Point spread function try.residual - Residual image try.image - Restored image try.model - Model image (contains only flux components) try.sumwt - Single pixel image containing sum-of-weights. (for natural weighting, sensitivity=1/sqrt(sumwt)) try.pb - Primary beam model (values depend on the gridder used)

Widefield projection algorithms (gridder=mosaic,awproject) will compute the following images too. try.weight - FT of gridded weights or the un-normalized sum of PB-square (for all pointings) Here, PB = sqrt(weight) normalized to a maximum of 1.0

For multi-term wideband imaging, all relevant images above will have additional .tt0,.tt1, etc suffixes to indicate Taylor terms, plus the following extra output images. try.alpha - spectral index try.alpha.error - estimate of error on spectral index try.beta - spectral curvature (if nterms > 2)

Tip : Include a directory name in ’imagename’ for all output images to be sent there instead of the current working directory : imagename=’mydir/try’

Tip : Restarting an imaging run without changing ’imagename’ implies continuation from the existing model image on disk. - If ’startmodel’ was initially specified it needs to be set to ”” for the restart run (or tclean will exit with an error message). - By default, the residual image and psf will be recomputed but if no changes were made to relevant parameters between the runs, set calcres=False, calcpsf=False to resume directly from the minor cycle without the (unnecessary) first major cycle. To automatically change ’imagename’ with a numerical increment, set restart=False (see tclean docs for ’restart’).

Note : All imaging runs will by default produce restored images. For a niter=0 run, this will be redundant and can optionally be turned off via the ’restoration=T/F’ parameter.

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

imsize

Number of pixels example : imsize = [350,250] imsize = 500 is equivalent to [500,500] To take proper advantage of internal optimized FFT routines, the number of pixels must be even and factorizable by 2,3,5,7 only.

allowed:

any

Default:

variant 100

cell

Cell size example: cell=[’0.5arcsec,’0.5arcsec’] or cell=[’1arcmin’, ’1arcmin’] cell = ’1arcsec’ is equivalent to [’1arcsec’,’1arcsec’]

allowed:

any

Default:

variant ”1arcsec”

phasecenter

Phase center of the image (string or field id) example: phasecenter=6 phasecenter=’J2000 19h30m00 -40d00m00’ phasecenter=’J2000 292.5deg -40.0deg’ phasecenter=’J2000 5.105rad -0.698rad’ phasecenter=’ICRS 13:05:27.2780 -049.28.04.458’

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

stokes

Stokes Planes to make default=’I’; example: stokes=’IQUV’; Options: ’I’,’Q’,’U’,’V’,’IV’,’QU’,’IQ’,’UV’,’IQUV’,’RR’,’LL’,’XX’,’YY’,’RRLL’,’XXYY’

Note : Due to current internal code constraints, if any correlation pair is flagged, no data for that row in the MS will be used. So, in an MS with XX,YY, if only YY is flagged, neither a Stokes I image nor an XX image can be made from those data points. In such a situation, please split out only the unflagged correlation into a separate MS. This constraint shall be removed (where logical) in a future release.

allowed:

string

Default:

I

projection

Coordinate projection Examples : SIN, NCP A list of supported (but untested) projections can be found here : http://casa.nrao.edu/active/docs/doxygen/html/classcasa_1_1Projection.html#a3d5f9ec787e4eabdce57ab5edaf7c0cd

allowed:

string

Default:

SIN

startmodel

Name of starting model image

The contents of the supplied starting model image will be copied to the imagename.model before the run begins.

example : startmodel = ’singledish.im’

For deconvolver=’mtmfs’, one image per Taylor term must be provided. example : startmodel = [’try.model.tt0’, ’try.model.tt1’] startmodel = [’try.model.tt0’] will use a starting model only for the zeroth order term. startmodel = [”,’try.model.tt1’] will use a starting model only for the first order term.

This starting model can be of a different image shape and size from what is currently being imaged. If so, an image regrid is first triggered to resample the input image onto the target coordinate system.

A common usage is to set this parameter equal to a single dish image

Negative components in the model image will be included as is.

[ Note : If an error occurs during image resampling/regridding, please try using task imregrid to resample the starting model image onto a CASA image with the target shape and coordinate system before supplying it via startmodel ]

allowed:

any

Default:

specmode

Spectral definition mode (mfs,cube,cubedata)

mode=’mfs’ : Continuum imaging with only one output image channel. (mode=’cont’ can also be used here)

mode=’cube’ : Spectral line imaging with one or more channels Parameters start, width,and nchan define the spectral coordinate system and can be specified either in terms of channel numbers, frequency or velocity in whatever spectral frame is specified in ’outframe’. All internal and output images are made with outframe as the base spectral frame. However imaging code internally uses the fixed spectral frame, LSRK for automatic internal software Doppler tracking so that a spectral line observed over an extended time range will line up appropriately. Therefore the output images have additional spectral frame conversion layer in LSRK on the top the base frame.

(Note : Even if the input parameters are specified in a frame other than LSRK, the viewer still displays spectral axis in LSRK by default because of the conversion frame layer mentioned above. The viewer can be used to relabel the spectral axis in any desired frame - via the spectral reference option under axis label properties in the data display options window.)

mode=’cubedata’ : Spectral line imaging with one or more channels There is no internal software Doppler tracking so a spectral line observed over an extended time range may be smeared out in frequency. There is strictly no valid spectral frame with which to label the ouput images, but they will list the frame defined in the MS.

allowed:

any

Default:

mfs

reffreq

Reference frequency of the output image coordinate system

Example : reffreq=’1.5GHz’ as a string with units.

By default, it is calculated as the middle of the selected frequency range.

For deconvolver=’mtmfs’ the Taylor expansion is also done about this specified reference frequency.

allowed:

any

Default:

nchan

Number of channels in the output image For default (=-1), the number of channels will be automatically determined based on data selected by ’spw’ with ’start’ and ’width’. It is often easiest to leave nchan at the default value. example: nchan=100

allowed:

int

Default:

-1

start

First channel (e.g. start=3,start=’1.1GHz’,start=’15343km/s’) of output cube images specified by data channel number (integer), velocity (string with a unit), or frequency (string with a unit). Default:”; The first channel is automatically determined based on the ’spw’ channel selection and ’width’. When the channel number is used along with the channel selection in ’spw’ (e.g. spw=’0:6~100’), ’start’ channel number is RELATIVE (zero-based) to the selected channels in ’spw’. So for the above example, start=1 means that the first image channel is the second selected data channel, which is channel 7. For specmode=’cube’, when velocity or frequency is used it is interpreted with the frame defined in outframe. [The parameters of the desired output cube can be estimated by using the ’transform’ functionality of ’plotms’] examples: start=’5.0km/s’; 1st channel, 5.0km/s in outframe start=’22.3GHz’; 1st channel, 22.3GHz in outframe

allowed:

any

Default:

width

Channel width (e.g. width=2,width=’0.1MHz’,width=’10km/s’) of output cube images specified by data channel number (integer), velocity (string with a unit), or or frequency (string with a unit). Default:”; data channel width The sign of width defines the direction of the channels to be incremented. For width specified in velocity or frequency with ’-’ in front gives image channels in decreasing velocity or frequency, respectively. For specmode=’cube’, when velocity or frequency is used it is interpreted with the reference frame defined in outframe. examples: width=’2.0km/s’; results in channels with increasing velocity width=’-2.0km/s’; results in channels with decreasing velocity width=’40kHz’; results in channels with increasing frequency width=-2; results in channels averaged of 2 data channels incremented from high to low channel numbers

allowed:

any

Default:

outframe

Spectral reference frame in which to interpret ’start’ and ’width’ Options: ”,’LSRK’,’LSRD’,’BARY’,’GEO’,’TOPO’,’GALACTO’,’LGROUP’,’CMB’ example: outframe=’bary’ for Barycentric frame

REST – Rest frequency LSRD – Local Standard of Rest (J2000) – as the dynamical definition (IAU, [9,12,7] km/s in galactic coordinates) LSRK – LSR as a kinematical (radio) definition – 20.0 km/s in direction ra,dec = [270,+30] deg (B1900.0) BARY – Barycentric (J2000) GEO — Geocentric TOPO – Topocentric GALACTO – Galacto centric (with rotation of 220 km/s in direction l,b = [90,0] deg. LGROUP – Local group velocity – 308km/s towards l,b = [105,-7] deg (F. Ghigo) CMB – CMB velocity – 369.5km/s towards l,b = [264.4, 48.4] deg (F. Ghigo) DEFAULT = LSRK

allowed:

string

Default:

LSRK

veltype

Velocity type (radio, z, ratio, beta, gamma, optical) For start and/or width specified in velocity, specifies the velocity definition Options: ’radio’,’optical’,’z’,’beta’,’gamma’,’optical’ NOTE: the viewer always defaults to displaying the ’radio’ frame, but that can be changed in the position tracking pull down.

The different types (with F = f/f0, the frequency ratio), are:

Z = (-1 + 1/F) RATIO = (F) * RADIO = (1 - F) OPTICAL == Z BETA = ((1 - F2)/(1 + F2)) GAMMA = ((1 + F2)/2F) * RELATIVISTIC == BETA (== v/c) DEFAULT == RADIO Note that the ones with an ’*’ have no real interpretation (although the calculation will proceed) if given as a velocity.

allowed:

string

Default:

radio

restfreq

List of rest frequencies or a rest frequency in a string. Specify rest frequency to use for output image. *Currently it uses the first rest frequency in the list for translation of velocities. The list will be stored in the output images. Default: []; look for the rest frequency stored in the MS, if not available, use center frequency of the selected channels examples: restfreq=[’1.42GHz’] restfreq=’1.42GHz’

allowed:

any

Default:

interpolation

Spectral interpolation (nearest,linear,cubic)

Interpolation rules to use when binning data channels onto image channels and evaluating visibility values at the centers of image channels.

Note : ’linear’ and ’cubic’ interpolation requires data points on both sides of each image frequency. Errors are therefore possible at edge channels, or near flagged data channels. When image channel width is much larger than the data channel width there is nothing much to be gained using linear or cubic thus not worth the extra computation involved.

allowed:

string

Default:

linear

gridder

Gridding options (standard, wproject, widefield, mosaic, awproject)

The following options choose different gridding convolution functions for the process of convolutional resampling of the measured visibilities onto a regular uv-grid prior to an inverse FFT. Model prediction (degridding) also uses these same functions. Several wide-field effects can be accounted for via careful choices of convolution functions. Gridding (degridding) runtime will rise in proportion to the support size of these convolution functions (in uv-pixels).

standard : Prolate Spheroid with 3x3 uv pixel support size

[ This mode can also be invoked using ’ft’ or ’gridft’ ]

wproject : W-Projection algorithm to correct for the widefield non-coplanar baseline effect. [Cornwell et.al 2008]

wprojplanes is the number of distinct w-values at which to compute and use different gridding convolution functions (see help for wprojplanes). Convolution function support size can range from 5x5 to few 100 x few 100.

[ This mode can also be invoked using ’wprojectft’ ]

widefield : Facetted imaging with or without W-Projection per facet.

A set of facets x facets subregions of the specified image are gridded separately using their respective phase centers (to minimize max W). Deconvolution is done on the joint full size image, using a PSF from the first subregion.

wprojplanes=1 : standard prolate spheroid gridder per facet. wprojplanes > 1 : W-Projection gridder per facet. nfacets=1, wprojplanes > 1 : Pure W-Projection and no facetting nfacets=1, wprojplanes=1 : Same as standard,ft,gridft

A combination of facetting and W-Projection is relevant only for very large fields of view.

mosaic : A-Projection with azimuthally symmetric beams without sidelobes, beam rotation or squint correction. Gridding convolution functions per visibility are computed from FTs of PB models per antenna. This gridder can be run on single fields as well as mosaics.

VLA : PB polynomial fit model (Napier and Rots, 1982) ALMA : Airy disks for a 10.7m dish (for 12m dishes) and 6.25m dish (for 7m dishes) each with 0.75m blockages (Hunter/Brogan 2011). Joint mosaic imaging supports heterogeneous arrays for ALMA.

Typical gridding convolution function support sizes are between 7 and 50 depending on the desired accuracy (given by the uv cell size or image field of view).

[ This mode can also be invoked using ’mosaicft’ or ’ftmosaic’ ]

awproject : A-Projection with azimuthally asymmetric beams and including beam rotation, squint correction, conjugate frequency beams and W-projection. [Bhatnagar et.al, 2008]

Gridding convolution functions are computed from aperture illumination models per antenna and optionally combined with W-Projection kernels and a prolate spheroid. This gridder can be run on single fields as well as mosaics.

VLA : Uses ray traced model (VLA and EVLA) including feed leg and subreflector shadows, off-axis feed location (for beam squint and other polarization effects), and a Gaussian fit for the feed beams (Ref: Brisken 2009) ALMA : Similar ray-traced model as above (but the correctness of its polarization properties remains un-verified).

Typical gridding convolution function support sizes are between 7 and 50 depending on the desired accuracy (given by the uv cell size or image field of view). When combined with W-Projection they can be significantly larger.

[ This mode can also be invoked using ’awprojectft’ ]

imagemosaic : (untested implementation) Grid and iFT each pointing separately and combine the images as a linear mosaic (weighted by a PB model) in the image domain before a joint minor cycle.

VLA/ALMA PB models are same as for gridder=’mosaicft’

—— Notes on PB models :

(1) Several different sources of PB models are used in the modes listed above. This is partly for reasons of algorithmic flexibility and partly due to the current lack of a common beam model repository or consensus on what beam models are most appropriate.

(2) For ALMA and gridder=’mosaic’, ray-traced (TICRA) beams are also available via the vpmanager tool. For example, call the following before the tclean run. vp.setpbimage(telescope=”ALMA”, compleximage=’/home/casa/data/trunk/alma/responses/ALMA_0_DV__0_0_360_0_45_90_348.5_373_373_GHz_ticra2007_VP.im’, antnames=[’DV’+’%02d’%k for k in range(25)]) ( Currently this will work only for non-parallel runs )

—— Note on PB masks :

In tclean, A-Projection gridders (mosaic and awproject) produce a .pb image and use the ’pblimit’ subparameter to decide normalization cutoffs and construct an internal T/F mask in the .pb and .image images. However, this T/F mask cannot directly be used during deconvolution (which needs a 1/0 mask). There are two options for making a pb based deconvolution mask. – Run tclean with niter=0 to produce the .pb, construct a 1/0 image with the desired threshold (using ia.open(’newmask.im’); ia.calc(’iif(”xxx.pb”>0.3,1.0,0.0)’);ia.close() for example), and supply it via the ’mask’ parameter in a subsequent run (with calcres=F and calcpsf=F to restart directly from the minor cycle). – Run tclean with usemask=’pb’ for it to automatically construct a 1/0 mask from the internal T/F mask from .pb at a fixed 0.2 threshold.

—– Note on making PBs for gridders other than mosaic,awproject

For now, to construct a .pb image with gridders other than mosaic and awproject please use the following script based on the old imager tool.

from recipes import makepb makepb.makePB(vis=’xxx.ms’,field=’0~5’, imtemplate=’template.im’, outimage=’try.pb’, pblimit=0.2)

( where template.im is any output image from the tclean run for which .pb is to be made. The coordinate system to use for .pb is picked from this template image )

Here too, to use a pb-level mask for deconvolution, run tclean with niter=0, make the .pb image using the above recipe script (with its internal T/F mask set at pblimit) and then either make a 1/0 mask image at whatever desired pb level and supply it via ’mask’ or set usemask=’pb’ to automatically construct a 1/0 mask at the 0.2 level.

allowed:

string

Default:

standard

facets

Number of facets on a side

A set of (facets x facets) subregions of the specified image are gridded separately using their respective phase centers (to minimize max W). Deconvolution is done on the joint full size image, using a PSF from the first subregion/facet.

allowed:

int

Default:

1

chanchunks

Number of channel chunks to grid separately

For large image cubes, the gridders can run into memory limits as they loop over all available image planes for each row of data accessed. To prevent this problem, we can grid subsets of channels in sequence so that at any given time only part of the image cube needs to be loaded into memory. This parameter controls the number of chunks to split the cube into.

Example : chanchunks = 4

[ This feature is experimental and may have restrictions on how chanchunks is to be chosen. For now, please pick chanchunks so that nchan/chanchunks is an integer. ]

allowed:

int

Default:

1

wprojplanes

Number of distinct w-values at which to compute and use different gridding convolution functions for W-Projection

An appropriate value of wprojplanes depends on the presence/absence of a bright source far from the phase center, the desired dynamic range of an image in the presence of a bright far out source, the maximum w-value in the measurements, and the desired trade off between accuracy and computing cost.

As a (rough) guide, VLA L-Band D-config may require a value of 128 for a source 30arcmin away from the phase center. A-config may require 1024 or more. To converge to an appropriate value, try starting with 128 and then increasing it if artifacts persist. W-term artifacts (for the VLA) typically look like arc-shaped smears in a synthesis image or a shift in source position between images made at different times. These artifacts are more pronounced the further the source is from the phase center.

There is no harm in simply always choosing a large value (say, 1024) but there will be a significant performance cost to doing so, especially for gridder=’awproject’ where it is combined with A-Projection.

wprojplanes=-1 is an option for gridder=’widefield’ or ’wproject’ in which the number of planes is automatically computed.

allowed:

int

Default:

1

vptable

VP table saved via the vpmanager

vptable=”” : Choose default beams for different telescopes ALMA : Airy disks EVLA : old VLA models.

Other primary beam models can be chosen via the vpmanager tool.

Step 1 : Set up the vpmanager tool and save its state in a table

vp.setpbpoly(telescope=’EVLA’, coeff=[1.0, -1.529e-3, 8.69e-7, -1.88e-10]) vp.saveastable(’myvp.tab’)

Step 2 : Supply the name of that table in tclean.

tclean(....., vptable=’myvp.tab’,....)

Please see the documentation for the vpmanager for more details on how to choose different beam models. Work is in progress to update the defaults for EVLA and ALMA.

Note : AWProjection currently does not use this mechanism to choose beam models. It instead uses ray-traced beams computed from parameterized aperture illumination functions, which are not available via the vpmanager. So, gridder=’awproject’ does not allow the user to set this parameter.

allowed:

string

Default:

aterm

Use aperture illumination functions during gridding

This parameter turns on the A-term of the AW-Projection gridder. Gridding convolution functions are constructed from aperture illumination function models of each antenna.

allowed:

bool

Default:

True

psterm

Use prolate spheroidal during gridding

allowed:

bool

Default:

False

wbawp

Use frequency dependent A-terms Scale aperture illumination functions appropriately with frequency when gridding and combining data from multiple channels.

allowed:

bool

Default:

True

conjbeams

Use conjugate frequency for wideband A-terms

While gridding data from one frequency channel, choose a convolution function from a ’conjugate’ frequency such that the resulting baseline primary beam is approximately constant across frequency. For a system in which the primary beam scales with frequency, this step will eliminate instrumental spectral structure from the measured data and leave only the sky spectrum for the minor cycle to model and reconstruct [Bhatnagar et.al,2013].

As a rough guideline for when this is relevant, a source at the half power point of the PB at the center frequency will see an artificial spectral index of -1.4 due to the frequency dependence of the PB [Sault and Wieringa, 1994]. If left uncorrected during gridding, this spectral structure must be modeled in the minor cycle (using the mtmfs algorithm) to avoid dynamic range limits (of a few hundred for a 2:1 bandwidth).

allowed:

bool

Default:

True

cfcache

Convolution function cache directory name

Name of a directory in which to store gridding convolution functions. This cache is filled at the beginning of an imaging run. This step can be time consuming but the cache can be reused across multiple imaging runs that use the same image parameters (cell size, field-of-view, spectral data selections, etc).

By default, cfcache = imagename + ’.cf’

allowed:

string

Default:

computepastep

At what parallactic angle interval to recompute aperture illumination functions (deg)

This parameter controls the accuracy of the aperture illumination function used with AProjection for alt-az mount dishes where the AIF rotates on the sky as the synthesis image is built up.

allowed:

double

Default:

360.0

rotatepastep

At what parallactic angle interval to rotate nearest aperture illumination function (deg)

Instead of recomputing the AIF for every timestep’s parallactic angle, the nearest existing AIF is picked and rotated in steps of this amount.

For example, computepastep=360.0 and rotatepastep=5.0 will compute the AIFs at only the starting parallactic angle and all other timesteps will use a rotated version of that AIF at the nearest 5.0 degree point.

allowed:

double

Default:

360.0

pblimit

PB gain level at which to cut off normalizations

Divisions by .pb during normalizations have a cut off at a .pb gain level given by pblimit. Outside this limit, image values are set to zero. Additionally, an internal T/F mask is applied to the .pb, .image and .residual images to mask out (T) all invalid pixels outside the pblimit area.

Note : This internal T/F mask cannot be used as a deconvolution mask. To do so, please follow the steps listed above in the Notes for the ’gridder’ parameter.

allowed:

double

Default:

0.2

normtype

Normalization type (flatnoise, flatsky)

Gridded (and FT’d) images represent the PB-weighted sky image. Qualitatively it can be approximated as two instances of the PB applied to the sky image (one naturally present in the data and one introduced during gridding via the convolution functions).

xxx.weight : Weight image approximately equal to sum ( square ( pb ) ) xxx.pb : Primary beam calculated as sqrt ( xxx.weight )

normtype=’flatnoise’ : Divide the raw image by sqrt(.weight) so that the input to the minor cycle represents the product of the sky and PB. The noise is ’flat’ across the region covered by each PB.

normtype=’flatsky’ : Divide the raw image by .weight so that the input to the minor cycle represents only the sky. The noise is higher in the outer regions of the primary beam where the sensitivity is low.

normtype=’pbsquare’ : No normalization after gridding and FFT. The minor cycle sees the sky times pb square [not yet implemented]

allowed:

string

Default:

flatnoise

deconvolver

Name of minor cycle algorithm (hogbom,clark,multiscale,mtmfs,mem,clarkstokes)

Each of the following algorithms operate on residual images and psfs from the gridder and produce output model and restored images. Minor cycles stop and a major cycle is triggered when cyclethreshold or cycleniter are reached. For all methods, components are picked from the entire extent of the image or (if specified) within a mask.

hogbom : An adapted version of Hogbom Clean [Hogbom, 1974] - Find the location of the peak residual - Add this delta function component to the model image - Subtract a scaled and shifted PSF of the same size as the image from regions of the residual image where the two overlap. - Repeat

clark : An adapted version of Clark Clean [Clark, 1980] - Find the location of max(I  +Q  +U  +V  ) - Add delta functions to each stokes plane of the model image - Subtract a scaled and shifted PSF within a small patch size from regions of the residual image where the two overlap. - After several iterations trigger a Clark major cycle to subtract components from the visibility domain, but without de-gridding. - Repeat

( Note : ’clark’ maps to imagermode=” in the old clean task. ’clark_exp’ is another implementation that maps to imagermode=’mosaic’ or ’csclean’ in the old clean task but the behavior is not identical. For now, please use deconvolver=’hogbom’ if you encounter problems. )

clarkstokes : Clark Clean operating separately per Stokes plane

(Note : ’clarkstokes_exp’ is an alternate version. See above.)

multiscale : MultiScale Clean [Cornwell, 2008] - Smooth the residual image to multiple scale sizes - Find the location and scale at which the peak occurs - Add this multiscale component to the model image - Subtract a scaled,smoothed,shifted PSF (within a small patch size per scale) from all residual images - Repeat from step 2

mtmfs : Multi-term (Multi Scale) Multi-Frequency Synthesis [Rau and Cornwell, 2011] - Smooth each Taylor residual image to multiple scale sizes - Solve a NTxNT system of equations per scale size to compute Taylor coefficients for components at all locations - Compute gradient chi-square and pick the Taylor coefficients and scale size at the location with maximum reduction in chi-square - Add multi-scale components to each Taylor-coefficient model image - Subtract scaled,smoothed,shifted PSF (within a small patch size per scale) from all smoothed Taylor residual images - Repeat from step 2

mem : Maximum Entropy Method [Cornwell and Evans, 1985] - Iteratively solve for values at all individual pixels via the MEM method. It minimizes an objective function of chi-square plus entropy (here, a measure of difference between the current model and a flat prior model).

(Note : This MEM implementation is not very robust. Improvements will be made in the future.)

allowed:

string

Default:

hogbom

scales

List of scale sizes (in pixels) for multi-scale and mtmfs algorithms. –> scales=[0,6,20] This set of scale sizes should represent the sizes (diameters in units of number of pixels) of dominant features in the image being reconstructed.

The smallest scale size is recommended to be 0 (point source), the second the size of the synthesized beam and the third 3-5 times the synthesized beam, etc. For example, if the synthesized beam is 10” FWHM and cell=2”,try scales = [0,5,15].

For numerical stability, the largest scale must be smaller than the image (or mask) size and smaller than or comparable to the scale corresponding to the lowest measured spatial frequency (as a scale size much larger than what the instrument is sensitive to is unconstrained by the data making it harder to recovery from errors during the minor cycle).

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

nterms

Number of Taylor coefficients in the spectral model

- nterms=1 : Assume flat spectrum source - nterms=2 : Spectrum is a straight line with a slope - nterms=N : A polynomial of order N-1

From a Taylor expansion of the expression of a power law, the spectral index is derived as alpha = taylorcoeff_1 / taylorcoeff_0

Spectral curvature is similarly derived when possible.

The optimal number of Taylor terms depends on the available signal to noise ratio, bandwidth ratio, and spectral shape of the source as seen by the telescope (sky spectrum x PB spectrum).

nterms=2 is a good starting point for wideband EVLA imaging and the lower frequency bands of ALMA (when fractional bandwidth is greater than 10%) and if there is at least one bright source for which a dynamic range of greater than few 100 is desired.

Spectral artifacts for the VLA often look like spokes radiating out from a bright source (i.e. in the image made with standard mfs imaging). If increasing the number of terms does not eliminate these artifacts, check the data for inadequate bandpass calibration. If the source is away from the pointing center, consider including wide-field corrections too.

(Note : In addition to output Taylor coefficient images .tt0,.tt1,etc images of spectral index (.alpha), an estimate of error on spectral index (.alpha.error) and spectral curvature (.beta, if nterms is greater than 2) are produced. - These alpha, alpha.error and beta images contain internal T/F masks based on a threshold computed as peakresidual/10. Additional masking based on .alpha/.alpha.error may be desirable. - .alpha.error is a purely empirical estimate derived from the propagation of error during the division of two noisy numbers (alpha = xx.tt1/xx.tt0) where the ’error’ on tt1 and tt0 are simply the values picked from the corresponding residual images. The absolute value of the error is not always accurate and it is best to interpret the errors across the image only in a relative sense.)

allowed:

int

Default:

2

smallscalebias

A numerical control to bias the solution towards smaller scales.

The peak from each scale’s smoothed residual is multiplied by ( 1 - smallscalebias * scale/maxscale ) to increase or decrease the amplitude relative to other scales, before the scale with the largest peak is chosen.

smallscalebias=0.6 (default) applies a slight bias towards small scales, ranging from 1.0 for a point source to 0.4 for the largest scale size

Values larger than 0.6 will bias the solution towards smaller scales. Values smaller than 0.6 will tend towards giving all scales equal weight.

allowed:

double

Default:

0.6

restoration

Restore the model image.

Construct a restored image : imagename.image by convolving the model image with a clean beam and adding the residual image to the result. If a restoringbeam is specified, the residual image is also smoothed to that target resolution before adding it in.

If a .model does not exist, it will make an empty one and create the restored image from the residuals ( with additional smoothing if needed ). With algorithm=’mtmfs’, this will construct Taylor coefficient maps from the residuals and compute .alpha and .alpha.error.

allowed:

bool

Default:

True

restoringbeam

Restoring beam shape/size to use.

- restoringbeam=” or [”] A Guassian fitted to the PSF main lobe (separately per image plane).

- restoringbeam=’10.0arcsec’ Use a circular Gaussian of this width for all planes

- restoringbeam=[’8.0arcsec’,’10.0arcsec’,’45deg’] Use this elliptical Gaussian for all planes

- restoringbeam=’common’ Automatically estimate a common beam shape/size appropriate for all planes.

Note : For any restoring beam different from the native resolution the model image is convolved with the beam and added to residuals that have been convolved to the same target resolution.

allowed:

any

Default:

variant

pbcor

Apply PB correction on the output restored image

A new image with extension .image.pbcor will be created from the evaluation of .image / .pb for all pixels above the specified pblimit.

Note : Stand-alone PB-correction can be triggered by re-running tclean with the appropriate imagename and with niter=0, calcpsf=False, calcres=False, pbcor=True, vptable=’vp.tab’ ( where vp.tab is the name of the vpmanager file. See the inline help for the ’vptable’ parameter )

Note : Multi-term PB correction that includes a correction for the spectral index of the PB has not been enabled for the 4.7 release. Please use the widebandpbcor task instead. ( Wideband PB corrections are required when the amplitude of the brightest source is known accurately enough to be sensitive to the difference in the PB gain between the upper and lower end of the band at its location. As a guideline, the artificial spectral index due to the PB is -1.4 at the 0.5 gain level and less than -0.2 at the 0.9 gain level at the middle frequency )

allowed:

bool

Default:

False

outlierfile

Name of outlier-field image definitions

A text file containing sets of parameter=value pairs, one set per outlier field.

Example : outlierfile=’outs.txt’

Contents of outs.txt :

imagename=tst1 nchan=1 imsize=[80,80] cell=[8.0arcsec,8.0arcsec] phasecenter=J2000 19:58:40.895 +40.55.58.543 mask=circle[[40pix,40pix],10pix]

imagename=tst2 nchan=1 imsize=[100,100] cell=[8.0arcsec,8.0arcsec] phasecenter=J2000 19:58:40.895 +40.56.00.000 mask=circle[[60pix,60pix],20pix]

The following parameters are currently allowed to be different between the main field and the outlier fields (i.e. they will be recognized if found in the outlier text file). If a parameter is not listed, the value is picked from what is defined in the main task input.

imagename, imsize, cell, phasecenter, startmodel, mask specmode, nchan, start, width, nterms, reffreq, gridder, deconvolver, wprojplanes

Note : ’specmode’ is an option, so combinations of mfs and cube for different image fields, for example, are supported. ’deconvolver’ and ’gridder’ are also options that allow different imaging or deconvolution algorithm per image field.

For example, multiscale with wprojection and 16 w-term planes on the main field and mtmfs with nterms=3 and wprojection with 64 planes on a bright outlier source for which the frequency dependence of the primary beam produces a strong effect that must be modeled. The traditional alternative to this approach is to first image the outlier, subtract it out of the data (uvsub) and then image the main field.

Note : If you encounter a use-case where some other parameter needs to be allowed in the outlier file (and it is logical to do so), please send us feedback. The above is an initial list.

allowed:

string

Default:

weighting

Weighting scheme (natural,uniform,briggs,superuniform,radial)

During gridding of the dirty or residual image, each visibility value is multiplied by a weight before it is accumulated on the uv-grid. The PSF’s uv-grid is generated by gridding only the weights (weightgrid).

weighting=’natural’ : Gridding weights are identical to the data weights from the MS. For visibilities with similar data weights, the weightgrid will follow the sample density pattern on the uv-plane. This weighting scheme provides the maximum imaging sensitivity at the expense of a possibly fat PSF with high sidelobes. It is most appropriate for detection experiments where sensitivity is most important.

weighting=’uniform’ : Gridding weights per visibility data point are the original data weights divided by the total weight of all data points that map to the same uv grid cell : ’ data_weight / total_wt_per_cell ’.

The weightgrid is as close to flat as possible resulting in a PSF with a narrow main lobe and suppressed sidelobes. However, since heavily sampled areas of the uv-plane get down-weighted, the imaging sensitivity is not as high as with natural weighting. It is most appropriate for imaging experiments where a well behaved PSF can help the reconstruction.

weighting=’briggs’ : Gridding weights per visibility data point are given by ’data_weight / ( A / total_wt_per_cell + B ) ’ where A and B vary according to the ’robust’ parameter.

robust = -2.0 maps to A=1,B=0 or uniform weighting. robust = +2.0 maps to natural weighting. (robust=0.5 is equivalent to robust=0.0 in AIPS IMAGR.)

Robust/Briggs weighting generates a PSF that can vary smoothly between ’natural’ and ’uniform’ and allow customized trade-offs between PSF shape and imaging sensitivity.

weighting=’superuniform’ : This is similar to uniform weighting except that the total_wt_per_cell is replaced by the total_wt_within_NxN_cells around the uv cell of interest. ( N = subparameter ’npixels’ )

This method tends to give a PSF with inner sidelobes that are suppressed as in uniform weighting but with far-out sidelobes closer to natural weighting. The peak sensitivity is also closer to natural weighting.

weighting=’radial’ : Gridding weights are given by ’ data_weight * uvdistance ’

This method approximately minimizes rms sidelobes for an east-west synthesis array.

For more details on weighting please see Chapter3 of Dan Briggs’ thesis (http://www.aoc.nrao.edu/dissertations/dbriggs)

allowed:

string

Default:

natural

robust

Robustness parameter for Briggs weighting.

robust = -2.0 maps to uniform weighting. robust = +2.0 maps to natural weighting. (robust=0.5 is equivalent to robust=0.0 in AIPS IMAGR.)

allowed:

double

Default:

0.5

npixels

Number of pixels to determine uv-cell size for super-uniform weighting (0 defaults to -/+ 3 pixels)

npixels – uv-box used for weight calculation a box going from -npixel/2 to +npixel/2 on each side around a point is used to calculate weight density.

npixels=2 goes from -1 to +1 and covers 3 pixels on a side.

npixels=0 implies a single pixel, which does not make sense for superuniform weighting. Therefore, if npixels=0 it will be forced to 6 (or a box of -3pixels to +3pixels) to cover 7 pixels on a side.

allowed:

int

Default:

0

uvtaper

uv-taper on outer baselines in uv-plane

Apply a Gaussian taper in addition to the weighting scheme specified via the ’weighting’ parameter. Higher spatial frequencies are weighted down relative to lower spatial frequencies to suppress artifacts arising from poorly sampled areas of the uv-plane. It is equivalent to smoothing the PSF obtained by other weighting schemes and can be specified either as a Gaussian in uv-space (eg. units of lambda) or as a Gaussian in the image domain (eg. angular units like arcsec).

uvtaper = [bmaj, bmin, bpa]

NOTE: the on-sky FWHM in arcsec is roughly the uv taper/200 (klambda). default: outertaper=[]; no outer taper applied example: outertaper=[’5klambda’] circular taper FWHM=5 kilo-lambda outertaper=[’5klambda’,’3klambda’,’45.0deg’] outertaper=[’10arcsec’] on-sky FWHM 10 arcseconds outertaper=[’300.0’] default units are lambda in aperture plane

allowed:

stringArray

Default:

niter

Maximum number of iterations

A stopping criterion based on total iteration count.

Iterations are typically defined as the selecting one flux component and partially subtracting it out from the residual image.

niter=0 : Do only the initial major cycle (make dirty image, psf, pb, etc)

niter larger than zero : Run major and minor cycles.

Note : Global stopping criteria vs major-cycle triggers

In addition to global stopping criteria, the following rules are used to determine when to terminate a set of minor cycle iterations and trigger major cycles [derived from Cotton-Schwab Clean, 1984]

’cycleniter’ : controls the maximum number of iterations per image plane before triggering a major cycle. ’cyclethreshold’ : Automatically computed threshold related to the max sidelobe level of the PSF and peak residual. Divergence, detected as an increase of 10% in peak residual from the minimum so far (during minor cycle iterations)

The first criterion to be satisfied takes precedence.

Note : Iteration counts for cubes or multi-field images : For images with multiple planes (or image fields) on which the deconvolver operates in sequence, iterations are counted across all planes (or image fields). The iteration count is compared with ’niter’ only after all channels/planes/fields have completed their minor cycles and exited either due to ’cycleniter’ or ’cyclethreshold’. Therefore, the actual number of iterations reported in the logger can sometimes be larger than the user specified value in ’niter’. For example, with niter=100, cycleniter=20,nchan=10,threshold=0, a total of 200 iterations will be done in the first set of minor cycles before the total is compared with niter=100 and it exits.

Note : Additional global stopping criteria include - no change in peak residual across two major cycles - a 50% or more increase in peak residual across one major cycle

allowed:

int

Default:

0

gain

Loop gain

Fraction of the source flux to subtract out of the residual image for the CLEAN algorithm and its variants.

A low value (0.2 or less) is recommended when the sky brightness distribution is not well represented by the basis functions used by the chosen deconvolution algorithm. A higher value can be tried when there is a good match between the true sky brightness structure and the basis function shapes. For example, for extended emission, multiscale clean with an appropriate set of scale sizes will tolerate a higher loop gain than Clark clean (for example).

allowed:

double

Default:

0.1

threshold

Stopping threshold (number in units of Jy, or string)

A global stopping threshold that the peak residual (within clean mask) across all image planes is compared to.

threshold = 0.005 : 5mJy threshold = ’5.0mJy’

Note : A ’cyclethreshold’ is internally computed and used as a major cycle trigger. It is related what fraction of the PSF can be reliably used during minor cycle updates of the residual image. By default the minor cycle iterations terminate once the peak residual reaches the first sidelobe level of the brightest source.

’cyclethreshold’ is computed as follows using the settings in parameters ’cyclefactor’,’minpsffraction’,’maxpsffraction’,’threshold’ :

psf_fraction = max_psf_sidelobe_level * ’cyclefactor’ psf_fraction = max(psf_fraction, ’minpsffraction’); psf_fraction = min(psf_fraction, ’maxpsffraction’); cyclethreshold = peak_residual * psf_fraction cyclethreshold = max( cyclethreshold, ’threshold’ )

’cyclethreshold’ is made visible and editable only in the interactive GUI when tclean is run with interactive=True.

allowed:

any

Default:

0.0

cycleniter

Maximum number of minor-cycle iterations (per plane) before triggering a major cycle

For example, for a single plane image, if niter=100 and cycleniter=20, there will be 5 major cycles after the initial one (assuming there is no threshold based stopping criterion). At each major cycle boundary, if the number of iterations left over (to reach niter) is less than cycleniter, it is set to the difference.

Note : cycleniter applies per image plane, even if cycleniter x nplanes gives a total number of iterations greater than ’niter’. This is to preserve consistency across image planes within one set of minor cycle iterations.

allowed:

int

Default:

-1

cyclefactor

Scaling on PSF sidelobe level to compute the minor-cycle stopping threshold.

Please refer to the Note under the documentation for ’threshold’ that discussed the calculation of ’cyclethreshold’

cyclefactor=1.0 results in a cyclethreshold at the first sidelobe level of the brightest source in the residual image before the minor cycle starts.

cyclefactor=0.5 allows the minor cycle to go deeper. cyclefactor=2.0 triggers a major cycle sooner.

allowed:

double

Default:

1.0

minpsffraction

PSF fraction that marks the max depth of cleaning in the minor cycle

Please refer to the Note under the documentation for ’threshold’ that discussed the calculation of ’cyclethreshold’

For example, minpsffraction=0.5 will stop cleaning at half the height of the peak residual and trigger a major cycle earlier.

allowed:

double

Default:

0.05

maxpsffraction

PSF fraction that marks the minimum depth of cleaning in the minor cycle

Please refer to the Note under the documentation for ’threshold’ that discussed the calculation of ’cyclethreshold’

For example, maxpsffraction=0.8 will ensure that at least the top 20 percent of the source will be subtracted out in the minor cycle even if the first PSF sidelobe is at the 0.9 level (an extreme example), or if the cyclefactor is set too high for anything to get cleaned.

allowed:

double

Default:

0.8

interactive

Modify masks and parameters at runtime

interactive=True will trigger an interactive GUI at every major cycle boundary (after the major cycle and before the minor cycle).

The interactive mode is currently not available for parallel cube imaging (please also refer to the Note under the documentation for ’parallel’ below).

Options for runtime parameter modification are :

Interactive clean mask : Draw a 1/0 mask (appears as a contour) by hand. If a mask is supplied at the task interface or if automasking is invoked, the current mask is displayed in the GUI and is available for manual editing.

Note : If a mask contour is not visible, please check the cursor display at the bottom of GUI to see which parts of the mask image have ones and zeros. If the entire mask=1 no contours will be visible.

Operation buttons : – Stop execution now (restore current model and exit) – Continue on until global stopping criteria are reached without stopping for any more interaction – Continue with minor cycles and return for interaction after the next major cycle.

Iteration control : – max cycleniter : Trigger for the next major cycle

The display begins with [ min( cycleniter, niter - itercount ) ] and can be edited by hand.

– iterations left : The display begins with [niter-itercount ] and can be edited to increase or decrease the total allowed niter.

– threshold : Edit global stopping threshold

– cyclethreshold : The display begins with the automatically computed value (see Note in help for ’threshold’), and can be edited by hand.

All edits will be reflected in the log messages that appear once minor cycles begin.

[ For scripting purposes, replacing True/False with 1/0 will get tclean to return an imaging summary dictionary to python ]

allowed:

any

Default:

variant False

usemask

Type of mask(s) to be used for deconvolution

user: (default) mask image(s) or user specified region file(s) or string CRTF expression(s) subparameters: mask, pbmask pb: primary beam mask subparameter: pbmask

Example: usemask=”pb”, pbmask=0.2 Construct a mask at the 0.2 pb gain level. (Currently, this option will work only with gridders that produce .pb (i.e. mosaic and awproject) or if an externally produced .pb image exists on disk)

auto-thresh: automask by threshold for deconvolution (binned residual image is used for to defining masks) subparameters : maskthreshold, maskresolution, pbmask, nmask, autoadjust

if pbmask is >0.0, the region outside the specified pb gain level is excluded from image statistics in determination of the threshold. if nmask > 0, ’pruning’ of the found automask regions will be applied. autoadjust = True will adjust maskthreshold to higher threshold as iteration progresses.

auto-thresh2: automask by threshold for deconvolution without binning subparameters : maskthreshold, maskresolution, pbmask, nmask

if pbmask is >0.0, the region outside the specified pb gain level is excluded from image statistics in determination of the threshold. maskresolution and nmask are used to ’prune’ the automask regions.

allowed:

string

Default:

user

mask

Mask (a list of image name(s) or region file(s) or region string(s)

The name of a CASA image or region file or region string that specifies a 1/0 mask to be used for deconvolution. Only locations with value 1 will be considered for the centers of flux components in the minor cycle. If regions specified fall completely outside of the image, tclean will throw an error.

Manual mask options/examples :

mask=’xxx.mask’ : Use this CASA image named xxx.mask and containing ones and zeros as the mask. If this image is a different shape from what is being made it will be resampled to the target coordinate system before being used.

[ Note : If an error occurs during image resampling or if the expected mask does not appear, please try using tasks ’imregrid’ or ’makemask’ to resample the mask image onto a CASA image with the target shape and coordinates and supply it via the ’mask’ parameter. ]

mask=’xxx.crtf’ : A text file with region strings and the following on the first line ( #CRTFv0 CASA Region Text Format version 0 ) This is the format of a file created via the viewer’s region tool when saved in CASA region file format.

mask=’circle[[40pix,40pix],10pix]’ : A CASA region string.

mask=[’xxx.mask’,’xxx.crtf’, ’circle[[40pix,40pix],10pix]’] : a list of masks

Note : Mask images for deconvolution must contain 1 or 0 in each pixel. Such a mask is different from an internal T/F mask that can be held within each CASA image. These two types of masks are not automatically interchangeable, so please use the makemask task to copy between them if you need to construct a 1/0 based mask from a T/F one.

Note : Work is in progress to generate more flexible masking options and enable more controls.

allowed:

any

Default:

varient

pbmask

primary beam mask

Examples : pbmask=0.0 (default, no pb mask) pbmask=0.2 (construct a mask at the 0.2 pb gain level)

allowed:

double

Default:

0.0

maskthreshold

threshold for automasking Threshold value in a string with a unit, sigma (e.g. 3.0) or fraction of peak (e.g, 0.05) For a float value, if it is >= 1.0, it is interpreted as sigma (i.e. sigma*rms for threshold). If it is < 1.0, it is interpreted as the fraction of peak.

Examples : threshold = ’1.0mJy’ threshold = 0.05 (threshold used is 0.05 * peak) threshold = 5.0 ( threshold used is 5.0 * rms ) threshold = ” (default, use 3.0 * rms )

allowed:

any

Default:

maskresolution

resolution for automasking The residual image is binned (npix x npix), where npix is maskresolution converted in the number of pixels Examples : maskresolution=’10arcsec’ maskresolution=2.0 (2 x bmaj) maskresolution=” (default, use a restoring beam major axis)

allowed:

any

Default:

nmask

Maximum number of mask regions to be added by automasking at the beginning each minor cycles run Examples : nmask=2 nmask=0 (default, set no limit on the number of mask regions to be added)

allowed:

int

Default:

0

autoadjust

Automatically adjust automask threshold to a higher value at the begging and when the rms value change from the previous value becomes less than 10%. Examples : autoadjust = True (default is False)

allowed:

bool

Default:

False

restart

Restart using existing images (and start from an existing model image) or automatically increment the image name and make a new image set.

True : Re-use existing images. If imagename.model exists the subsequent run will start from this model (i.e. predicting it using current gridder settings and starting from the residual image). Care must be taken when combining this option with startmodel. Currently, only one or the other can be used.

startmodel=”, imagename.model exists : - Start from imagename.model startmodel=’xxx’, imagename.model does not exist : - Start from startmodel startmodel=’xxx’, imagename.model exists : - Exit with an error message requesting the user to pick only one model. This situation can arise when doing one run with startmodel=’xxx’ to produce an output imagename.model that includes the content of startmodel, and wanting to restart a second run to continue deconvolution. Startmodel should be set to ” before continuing.

If any change in the shape or coordinate system of the image is desired during the restart, please change the image name and use the startmodel (and mask) parameter(s) so that the old model (and mask) can be regridded to the new coordinate system before starting.

False : A convenience feature to increment imagename with ’_1’, ’_2’, etc as suffixes so that all runs of tclean are fresh starts (without having to change the imagename parameter or delete images).

This mode will search the current directory for all existing imagename extensions, pick the maximum, and adds 1. For imagename=’try’ it will make try.psf, try_2.psf, try_3.psf, etc.

This also works if you specify a directory name in the path : imagename=’outdir/try’. If ’./outdir’ does not exist, it will create it. Then it will search for existing filenames inside that directory.

If outlier fields are specified, the incrementing happens for each of them (since each has its own ’imagename’). The counters are synchronized across imagefields, to make it easier to match up sets of output images. It adds 1 to the ’max id’ from all outlier names on disk. So, if you do two runs with only the main field (imagename=’try’), and in the third run you add an outlier with imagename=’outtry’, you will get the following image names for the third run : ’try_3’ and ’outtry_3’ even though ’outry’ and ’outtry_2’ have not been used.

allowed:

bool

Default:

True

savemodel

Options to save model visibilities (none, virtual, modelcolumn)

Often, model visibilities must be created and saved in the MS to be later used for self-calibration (or to just plot and view them).

none : Do not save any model visibilities in the MS. The MS is opened in readonly mode.

Model visibilities can be predicted in a separate step by restarting tclean with niter=0,savemodel=virtual or modelcolumn and not changing any image names so that it finds the .model on disk (or by changing imagename and setting startmodel to the original imagename).

virtual : In the last major cycle, save the image model and state of the gridder used during imaging within the SOURCE subtable of the MS. Images required for de-gridding will also be stored internally. All future references to model visibilities will activate the (de)gridder to compute them on-the-fly. This mode is useful when the dataset is large enough that an additional model data column on disk may be too much extra disk I/O, when the gridder is simple enough that on-the-fly recomputing of the model visibilities is quicker than disk I/O.

modelcolumn : In the last major cycle, save predicted model visibilities in the MODEL_DATA column of the MS. This mode is useful when the de-gridding cost to produce the model visibilities is higher than the I/O required to read the model visibilities from disk. This mode is currently required for gridder=’awproject’. This mode is also required for the ability to later pull out model visibilities from the MS into a python array for custom processing.

Note 1 : The imagename.model image on disk will always be constructed if the minor cycle runs. This savemodel parameter applies only to model visibilities created by de-gridding the model image.

Note 2 : It is possible for an MS to have both a virtual model as well as a model_data column, but under normal operation, the last used mode will get triggered. Use the delmod task to clear out existing models from an MS if confusion arises.

allowed:

string

Default:

none

calcres

Calculate initial residual image

This parameter controls what the first major cycle does.

calcres=False with niter greater than 0 will assume that a .residual image already exists and that the minor cycle can begin without recomputing it.

calcres=False with niter=0 implies that only the PSF will be made and no data will be gridded.

calcres=True requires that calcpsf=True or that the .psf and .sumwt images already exist on disk (for normalization purposes).

Usage example : For large runs (or a pipeline scripts) it may be useful to first run tclean with niter=0 to create an initial .residual to look at and perhaps make a custom mask for. Imaging can be resumed without recomputing it.

allowed:

bool

Default:

True

calcpsf

Calculate PSF

This parameter controls what the first major cycle does.

calcpsf=False will assume that a .psf image already exists and that the minor cycle can begin without recomputing it.

allowed:

bool

Default:

True

parallel

Run major cycles in parallel (this feature is experimental)

Parallel tclean will run only if casapy has already been started using mpirun. Please refer to HPC documentation for details on how to start this on your system.

Example : mpirun -n 3 -xterm 0 ‘which casapy‘

Continuum Imaging : - Data are partitioned (in time) into NProc pieces - Gridding/iFT is done separately per partition - Images (and weights) are gathered and then normalized - One non-parallel minor cycle is run - Model image is scattered to all processes - Major cycle is done in parallel per partition

Cube Imaging : - Data and Image coordinates are partitioned (in freq) into NProc pieces - Each partition is processed independently (major and minor cycles) - All processes are synchronized at major cycle boundaries for convergence checks - At the end, cubes from all partitions are concatenated along the spectral axis

Note 1 : Iteration control for cube imaging is independent per partition. - There is currently no communication between them to synchronize information such as peak residual and cyclethreshold. Therefore, different chunks may trigger major cycles at different levels. - For cube imaging in parallel, there is currently no interactive masking. (Proper synchronization of iteration control is work in progress.)

allowed:

bool

Default:

False

Returns
void

Example

 
 
     This is the first release of our refactored imager code. Although most features have  
     been used and validated, there are many details that have not been thoroughly tested.  
     Feedback will be much appreciated.  
 
 
     Usage Examples :  
     -----------------------  
 
     (A) A suite of test programs that demo all usable modes of tclean on small test datasets  
           https://svn.cv.nrao.edu/svn/casa/branches/release-4_5/gcwrap/python/scripts/tests/test_refimager.py  
     (B) A set of demo examples for ALMA imaging  
           https://casaguides.nrao.edu/index.php/TCLEAN_and_ALMA  
 
 
 


More information about CASA may be found at the CASA web page

Copyright 2016 Associated Universities Inc., Washington, D.C.

This code is available under the terms of the GNU General Public Lincense


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